VITAMIN E

Vitamin E with tocotrienols is an advanced formulation of health supplement to protect the body from free radicals, infection and illnesses. It is a palm oil tocotrienols and tocopherol supplement with highly bioavailable compounds. With our advanced NABTECH technology, TOCOTRIENOLS & TOCOPHEROL tablet will deliver the best vitamin E supplement for the body. This natural vitamin E supplement provides neuroprotection and promotes recovery for cancer patients underwent surgery or chemotherapy.

Our tocotrienol complex formulation consists of alpha, beta and gamma chain. Gamma tocopherol has many valuable functions in our body. Our tocotrienols also consist of vitamin E at a higher concentration. As a superfood supplement, it is great at controlling cholesterols levels, improves vision, PMS symptoms and physical endurance by protecting our cells against lipid peroxidation. This vitamin E tablet also great for skin care. Its potent antioxidant properties can reduce signs of aging like wrinkles, hair fall, osteoporosis and muscle atrophy.

WHAT IS TOCOTRIENOLS AND VITAMIN E
Vitamin E is fat-soluble which able to penetrate the fatty areas of the tissues. It neutralizes toxic oxidants and protects oxidant-sensitive membranes. It acts as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from the damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals are compounds formed when our bodies convert the food we eat into energy or exposed to free radicals in the environment. The body needs boost its immune system so that it can fight off invading bacteria and viruses.

Vitamin E comes in eight different forms which all are derived from plants. They are divided into two classes which are tocopherols and tocotrienols. The tocopherols consist of 4 types of vitamin E, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The features distinguishing each are slight chemical differences (location and number of methyl groups) on its core structure. The tocotrienols are virtually identical to the tocopherols in structure, except for the presence of 3 unsaturated bonds (hence trienol). Alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocotrienols are more permeable to cell membranes because of their unsaturated bonds. This chemical difference imparts certain advantages over the less permeable tocopherols. The antioxidant efficiency of tocotrienols was evaluated as their ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species production. Delta-tocotrienols was found to have the greatest antioxidant properties among the tocotrienols isomers. Figure 1 shows the product picture.

BENEFITS OF TOCOTRIENOLS AND VITAMIN E
Tocotrienols target specific free radicals and sources of inflammation which by attacking these targets could offer the following health benefits:
• Anti-inflammation: Tocotrienols control inflammatory mechanisms including reduction of atherogenic lipoprotein and inhibition of the sticky adhesion molecules present in early stages of atherosclerosis.
• Protecting the brain: Some brain health conditions including dementia, Alzheimer’s, and other forms of brain decline, are linked to free radical damage. Tocotrienols able to fight a specific inflammatory factor that is related to brain health problems. The antioxidant activity of tocotrienols and tocopherols provide protection from free radical injury to brain cells.
• Hair and skin health: tocotrienols is antioxidant that helps in reversing or slowing skin damage due to free radicals. It prevents wrinkles and help the skin appear youthful.
• Lower cholesterol and lipid management: tocotrienols have the ability to down-regulate a liver enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis (HMG-CoA reductase). This down-regulation results in a suppression of the activity of the enzyme. Tocotrienols lower LDL (bad) cholesterol levels, and effectively lower triglyceride levels. Elevation of either of these lipid levels is associated with heart disease and metabolic syndrome.
• Eye health: Tocotrienols reduce angiogenesis, and may slow down the process of retinopathy and macular degeneration. Angiogenesis is involved in the abnormal growth of blood vessels in eye conditions such as diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness.
• Balances Hormones: Tocotrienols and vitamin E can play a crucial role in balancing the endocrine and nervous systems. Symptoms of a hormonal imbalance may include PMS, weight gain, allergies, urinary tract infections, changes in the skin, anxiety and fatigue.

DRAWBACK OF TOCOTRIENOLS AND VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY
If the daily intake for Vitamin E is below recommended levels, it leads to Vitamin E deficiency since the vitamin is required for many vital bodily functions. Here are a few signs to look out for:
• Digestive system problems: Low levels of vitamin E in the body can cause many digestive system problems which will lead to diseases in pancreas, liver, gall bladder and etc. This is due to the poor absorption of nutrients from the digestive tract.
• Dry hair or loss of hair: Vitamin E is vital for good blood circulation. Good circulation helps feeding the scalp, hair follicles and keeping them healthy. Its deficiency can cause hair loss and dry hair.
• Muscular weakness: myopathy develops due to the vitamin E deficiency, where the muscular fibers do not function and go weak.
• Immune problem and slow tissue healing: Vitamin E is useful to improve the immune system as it builds antibodies with selenium. Deficiency of it can cause infectious diseases, and slow the time recovering from illness.
• Leg cramps: the sudden, painful and involuntary contraction of the muscles. Occurs after exertion of pressure usually in the leg and foot. Nocturnal leg cramps are usually observed at night or when muscles are at rest.
• Skin dryness: Vitamin E deficiency can cause dry skin.
• Anaemia: occurs due to low amount of red blood cells present in the blood. Red blood cells (RBCs) are required for haemoglobin to transport oxygen to other parts of the body. Oxygen is essential for cellular respiration. Vitamin E deficiency can cause birth defects, haemolytic anaemia, and degradation of the red blood cells.

The ingredient possesses several properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-viral and anti-bacterial.

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF VITAMIN E:
When vitamin E is consumed, intestinal absorption is an important factor that limits vitamin E bioavailability. It is known that vitamin E, as a fat-soluble vitamin, follows the intestinal absorption, hepatic metabolism and cellular uptake processes of other lipophilic molecules and lipids.

Firstly, triacylglycerol and esterified fat-soluble compounds are partly processed enzymatically in the stomach by gastric lipase. Digestive enzymes including pancreatic lipase, carboxyl esterase and phospholipase A, secreted into the intestinal lumen, continue the digestion of dietary lipids. Subsequent absorption of vitamin E in the duodenum is characterized by the transfer from emulsion fat globules to water-soluble multi-lamellar and uni-lamellar vesicles and mixed micelles comprised of phospholipids and bile acids. This is the fundamental step in the gastric digestion and uptake of lipids, and also a crucial phase in the absorption of vitamin E.

The route of vitamin E after oral intake follows the general pathway as other lipids. Pancreatic and intestinal enzymatic digestion followed by the circulation and distribution to the liver and non-hepatic tissues is the same for all vitamin E forms. Discrimination between the different forms of vitamin E in favour of α-TOH occurs mainly in the liver by α-TTP, which protects α-TOH from excessive degradation and excretion. α-TOH acetate is embedded in matrices where its hydrolysis and its uptake by intestinal cells are markedly less efficient than in mixed micelles.

The intestinal cellular uptake of vitamin E from mixed micelles follows in principle two different pathways across enterocytes which are passive diffusion pathway and receptor-mediated transport pathway.

Receptors facilitating α-TOH transport across the enterocyte membrane are the class B type 1 scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and the Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1 (NPC1L1) which are an apical membrane receptor of the small intestine. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCG5/ABCG8, at the luminal site, and ABCA1, at the apical site, are responsible for steroid efflux into the intestinal lumen and transport into the lymph system, respectively. Finally, ABCA1 is directly involved in the export of vitamin E from cells.

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